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Gender, Sexual Orientation and Type of Relationship Influence Individual Differences in Jealousy: A Large Brazilian Sample

15 April 2020

Publication date
15 April 2020

Original abstract

Jealousy is supposed to secure the relationship against a third party. Both partners face significant potential costs in case of the partner desertion caused by an extra-pair liaison. However, studies systematically find higher emotional and overall jealousy among women. Interestingly, sex differences in jealousy do not appear among non-heterosexual or consensually non-monogamous (CNM) individuals. We aimed to investigate effect of gender, sexual orientation and type of relationship on several measures of jealousy. A large Brazilian sample of 5,230 men and women (Mage = 28.3) responded to demographic questions, relationship status and type, Reactive Jealousy Scale, Sexual Jealousy Scale, Self-reported Jealousy, and the Kinsey Scale of Sexual Orientation. Participants were classified as singles (N = 2,253, 43%), those in monogamous (N = 2,578, 49%) and CNM relationships (N = 400, 8%). Women reported higher overall and emotional jealousy than men, but these sex differences did not apply to non-heterosexuals or CNM individuals. CNM individuals reported lower overall and sexual jealousy. This supports the notion that specific individual (e.g., gender, sexual orientation) and social (e.g., relationship status and type) factors influence the psychological trait of jealousy.


Varella Valentova, J., Cintrade Moraes, A. & Correa Varella, M. A. (2020). Gender, sexual orientation and type of relationship influence individual differences in jealousy: A large Brazilian sample. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol.157, DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2019.109805

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homosexuality, bisexuality, consensual non-monogamy, singles, evolutionary psychology


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