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The Gender Nonconformity Teasing Scale for Gay and Bisexual Men

11 September 2018
Karolanne O'Keefe

Publication Date
September 2018

Original Abstract
Sexual minority youth experience more bullying than their heterosexual peers, and antigay bullying is positively associated with psychological distress. Antigay bullying can also involve being verbally bullied for gender nonconformity, which is common among sexual minority youth. Despite its relevance for the mental health of gay and bisexual men (GBM), no scales with established psychometric properties exist to assess childhood verbal bullying based on gender nonconformity.

In this study, we tested the psychometric properties of the Gender Nonconformity Teasing Scale (GeNTS). In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 304 participants (median age 44, 91% gay identified) who responded to 13 items, using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Sample items include “I was teased because I played with girls” and “I was teased for being ‘too feminine.’” Fit indices, in an exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation, suggested a nine-item, two-factor solution: (a) teasing pertaining to the choice of social activities and (b) teasing based on gender expression.

The scale correlated positively with self-reports of childhood teasing and bullying frequency, and adult loneliness, depression, and anxiety. The GeNTS is a reliable scale that demonstrates medium to strong associations with psychological distress among GBM.

This scale will enable researchers to investigate retrospective reports of bullying based on gender nonconformity among GBM and its effects on psychological distress. The GeNTS may also be helpful as a screening tool in clinical settings for clinicians working with GBM.

Adam, Hart, T., W. Noor, S., G. Tulloch, T., Sivagnanasunderam, B., Vernon, J., W. Pantalone, D., Myers, T. and Calzavara, L. (2018). The gender nonconformity teasing scale gay and bisexual men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. DOI: 10.1037/men0000179.

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men, gay, bisexual, young men, sexual minority, intimidation, psychological distress, mental health


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